A fiber optic splitter, also known as a beam splitter, is based on a quartz substrate of an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, similar to a coaxial cable transmission system. The optical network system uses an optical signal coupled to the branch distribution. The fiber optic splitter is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link. It is an optical fiber tandem device with many input and output terminals, especially applicable to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to branch the optical signal.
According to the principle, fiber optic splitters can be divided into Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) splitter and Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) splitters.
Fiber optic coupler is manufactured by placing two or more fibers adjacent to one another, after fusing and stretching them, thus creating a coupling region. The heated area is stretched until the desired coupling properties are achieved. This device is called a Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) coupler.
The FBT splitter is one of the most common. FBT splitters are widely accepted and used in passive networks, especially for instances where the split configuration is smaller (1x2, 1X4, 2x2, etc.).The FBT splitter offers low cost, common materials (quartz substrate, stainless steel, fiber, hot dorm, GEL), and an adjustable splitting ratio.
The PLC is a more recent technology. PLC splitters offer a better solution for larger applications. Waveguides are fabricated using lithography onto a silica glass substrate, which allows for routing specific percentages of light. As a result, PLC splitters offer accurate and even splits with minimal loss in an efficient package.PLC splitter: Losses are not sensitive to the wavelength, spectral uniformity is higher, it is more compact and is a lower cost with greater degrees of splitting.